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TM 5-4310-379-14 e.    Cooling System.    The  cooling  system  consists  of  a  radiator,  fan,  centrifugal-type  water  pump,  and  thermostat. The water pump directs a flow coolant circulating through the engine.  Engine coolant is drawn from the bottom of the radiator core by the water pump and is forced through the oil cooler and into the water manifold and thermostat housing. From the thermostat housing, the coolant returns to the radiator where it passes down a series of tubes and is cooled by the air stream created by the fan.  When starting a cold engine, or when the coolant is below operating temperature, the coolant is restricted at the thermostat housing and a bypass provides water circulation within the engine during the warm- up period. f.   Exhaust System.  The exhaust system consists of a unitized muffler and exhaust pipe, designed to decrease the noise  of  combustion  and  to  carry  the  combustion  gases  up  and  away  from  the  air  intake  area.    The  exhaust  pipe  is covered with a hinged, spring-loaded cap to exclude rain.  The muffler is threaded for insertion into the engine manifold. g.  Lubrication System.  The lubrication system provides lubrication to all moving parts within the engine.  A gear- type pump draws oil from the oil pan, through an intake screen.  The oil is then pumped through the oil cooler.  After leaving the oil cooler the flow is divided.  A portion of the oil flow is directed to crankshaft front main and connecting rod bearings, front camshaft and balance shaft bearings, through the oil filter and back to oil pan, and the remainder travels to cylinder head where it supplies lubrication to valve operation mechanisms, center and rear camshaft, balance shaft, main, and connecting rod bearings.  Oil draining back down from cylinder head also provides lubrication to front and rear blower bearings and gear train.  An oil by-pass valve allows excess oil to by-pass the oil cooler during warm up periods and in the event the oil cooler becomes stopped up. 1-13. Detailed Principles of Operation, Air Compressor. a.    Compressor  Pulley.    The  pulley  is  mounted  at  front  of  compressor  unit.    It  is  connected  to  the  end  of  the crankshaft and held in place with a keyway and two bolts.  The pulley provides a means of receiving power from a diesel engine  through  a  belt  arrangement.    The  rotation  of  the  pulley  turns  the  crankshaft  of  the  compressor  to  develop compressed air. b.    Air  System.    Figure  1illustrates  the  compressor  air  system.    Air  at  atmospheric  pressure  is  drawn  into  the  low pressure cylinder by having the intake valve open on the down-stroke of the piston.  On the compression stroke of the first   stage   piston,   air   is   forced   through   the   first   stage   discharge   valve   and   into   the   high   pressure   cylinder.      The compressed air from the first stage enters the second stage through an intake valve and is drawn in by the down-stroke of the second stage piston.  On the compression stroke the air is compressed to its final stage and then leaves the high pressure  cylinder  by  the  open  discharge  valve.    The  compressed  air  leaves  the  compressor  through  the  discharge manifold.  In the event the air supplied by the compressor is greater than the demand, a variable differential pilot valve in the system will route excess air to the air unloader valves.  The air unloader valves receive the excess air pressure on a diaphragm which drives a pin which in turn opens the intake valves.  This action prevents the intake valves from closing and  thereby  does  not  allow  compression  of  air.    When  the  air  demand  becomes  greater  than  the  supply,  the  variable differential pilot valve will shut off the air supply to the air unloaders which will in turn allow the intake valves to close, and the compressor to load. c.    Interstage Safety Valve.  The compressor is equipped with two safety valves which are installed in each cylinder head.  The valve will relieve pressure at 100 psi in the event of an obstruction blockage in the passages of the head, between the high and low pressure stages. Change 1 1-9

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